Tweeting Egypt

The Social Media of the Egyptian Uprising

Works Consulted

Though it is unconventional for a site to have a bibliography, it seems irresponsible for a website that is trying to act as a resource to not cite its sources. Use this to further your exploration of social media and the Egyptian uprising.

Traditional and General Web Sources

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Anderson, Jon W. 2011. “Between Freedom and Coercion: Inside Internet Implantation in the Middle East.” In The New Arab Media: Technology, Image and Perception, ed. Mahjoob Zweiri & Emma C. Murphy, 19-29. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press.

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Beardsley, Eleanor. 2011. “Social Media Gets Credit for Tunisian Overthrow.” National Public Radio. 16 January. http://www.npr.org/2011/01/16/132975274/Social-Media-Gets-Credit-For-Tunisian-Overthrow Visited 20 January 2012.

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Beinin, Joel. 2011. “A Workers’ Social Movement on the Margin of the Global Neoliberal Order, Egypt 2004-2009.” In Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa, ed. Joel Beinin & Frederic Vairel, 181-201. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

Beinin, Joel. 2011. “Afterword: Popular Uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt.” In Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa, ed. Joel Beinin & Frederic Vairel, 242-251. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

Ben-Ari, Elia.  2009. “Twitter: What’s All the Chirping About?” BioScience 59.7: 632. JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org.proxyau.wrlc.org/stable/10.1525/bio.2009.59.7.19 Visited 25 September 2011.

Blight, G., Dant, A., & Wells, M. 2011. “Twitter Network of Arab and Middle East Protests.” The Guardian. 22 August. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/interactive/2011/feb/11/guardian-twitter-arab-protests-interactive?intcmp=239 Visited 6 April 2012.

Calderone, Michael. 2011. “Journalists Get Attacked, Arrested in Egypt.” Yahoo! News. 3 February http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/cutline/journalists-attacked-arrested-egypt-20110203-070947-962.html Visited 13 November 2011.

Campbell, Matthew. 2012. “Hero of Egypt’s Digital Tsunami.” The Australian News. 16 January. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/features/hero-of-egypts-digital-tsunami/story-e6frg6z6-1226244872304 Visited 20 February 2012.

Cashmore, Pete. 2007. “Twitter: The Evolution of Cat Blogging.” Mashable. 11 March. http://mashable.com/2007/03/11/twitter/ Visited 13 March 2012.

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Cohen, J. 2011. “Google’s Wael Ghonim Thanks Facebook For Revolution.” All Facebook. 11 February. http://www.allfacebook.com/googles-wael-ghonim-thanks-facebook-for-revolution-2011-02 Visited 15 November 2011.

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Christiansen, Johnson. 2009. “Four Stages of Social Movements.” Ebsco Research Starters. http://www.ebscohost.com/uploads/imported/thisTopic-dbTopic-1248.pdf Viewed 23 April 2012.

Cook, Steven A. 2007. Ruling But Not Governing: The Military and Political Development in Egypt, Algeria, and Turkey. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Crees, Alex. 2012. “14-Year-Old’s Suicide Puts Spotling on Online Bullying Dangers.” Fox News. 12 March. http://www.foxnews.com/health/2012/03/12/14-year-olds-suicide-puts-spotlight-on-online-bullying-dangers/ Visited 15 March 2012.

Deibert, R., Palfrey, J., Rohozinski, R. and Zittrain, J. 2010. “Country Profiles and Regional Overviews: Egypt.” Access Controlled: The Shaping of Power, Rights and Rule in Cyberspace. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Dickinson, Elizabeth. 2011. “Anatomy of a Dictatorship: Hosni Mubarak.” Foreign Policy – the Global Magazine of Economics, Politics, and Ideas. 4 February. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/02/04/anatomy_of_a_dictatorship_hosni_mubarak?page=full Visted 7 December 2011.

Dozier, Kimberley. 2011. “AP Exclusive: CIA Following Twitter, Facebook.” Yahoo! News. 4 November. http://news.yahoo.com/ap-exclusive-cia-following-twitter-facebook-081055316.html Visited 15 November 2011.

Duboc, Marie. 2011. “Egyptian Leftist Intellectuals’ Activism from the Margins: Overcoming the Mobilization/Demobilization Dichotomy.” In Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa, ed. Joel Beinin & Frederic Vairel, 61-79. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

Dumenco, S. 2011. “What the Return of Internet in Egypt Looked Like on Twitter.  Advertising Age, 82(6), 21.

“Editorial: Iran’s Twitter Revolution.” 2009. The Washington Times. 16 June. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/jun/16/irans-twitter-revolution/ Visited 21 February.

Edwards, Haley S. 2011. “Former Al Jazeera Head on Quitting, the Arab Spring, and Qatar’s Role.” The Atlantic. 30 September. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2011/09/former-al-jazeera-head-on-quitting-the-arab-spring-and-qatars-role/245932/ Visited 30 September 2011.

“Egypt.” 2012. Internet World Stats. http://www.internetworldstats.com/africa.htm#eg Visited on multiple occasions between March and April 2012.

“Egypt Protests: Secret U.S. Document Discloses Support for Protesters.” 2011. The Telegraph. 28 January. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/egypt/8289698/Egypt-protests-secret-US-document-discloses-support-for-protesters.html Viewed 6 April 2012.

Eickelman, Dale F., & Anderson, Jon W. 1999. New Media in the Muslim world: the Emerging Public Sphere. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

El Amrani, Isandar. 2008. “What to Make of the ‘General Strike?.'” The Arabist. http://www.arabist.net/blog/2008/4/7/what-to-make-of-the-general-strike.html Visited 20 February 2012.

Etling, B., Kelly, J., Faris, R., & Palfrey, J. 2010. “Mapping the Arabic Blogosphere: Politics and Dissent Online.” New Media & Society12(8). http://nms.sagepub.com/ Visited 5 December 2011.

Evans, Mark. 2011. “Does Social Media Fuel or Quell Social Unrest?” Sysomos Blog. 12 August. http://blog.sysomos.com/2011/08/12/does-social-media-fuel-or-quell-social-unrest-2/ Visited 17 February 2012. 

Evans, Mark. 2011. “Egyptian Crisis: The Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted.” Sysomos Blog. 31 January. http://blog.sysomos.com/2011/01/31/egyptian-crisis-twitte/ Visited 21 February 2012.

Faris, Robert & Etling, Bruce. 2008. “Madison and the Smart Mob: The Promise and Limitations of the Internet for Democracy.” In Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 32 (summer). 65-86.

Fawzy, Samiha & Galal, Ahmed. 1999. Partners for Development: New Roles for Governments and Private Sector in the Middle East and North Africa. E-book: World Bank Publications. http://books.google.com/books?id=s-KneTP6UfIC&source=gbs_navlinks_s Visited 26 February 2012.

Feree, Myra Marx. 1992. “The Political Context of Rationality: Rational Choice Theory and Resource Mobilization.” In Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, ed. Aldon Morris & Carol McClurg Mueller, 29-51. Binghamton, New York: Yale University.

Freelon, Deen. 2011. “Sorting Through Claims about the Internet and Revolutions, Part 1.” Dfreelon.org. 5 February. http://dfreelon.org/2011/02/05/sorting-through-claims-about-the-internet-and-revolutions-part-1/ Visited 13 November 2011.

Galal, Ahmed. 1999. “Welfare Impact of Telecom Reform in Egypt: An Ex Ante Analysis.” In Partners for Development, ed. Ahmed Galal & Samiha Fawzy. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction.

Gallaga, Omar L. 2007. “Blog Revolution Slacks Off, But Evolution Likely.” Austin American-Statesman 9 March. Final ed.: A1. Factivia. Visited 29 March 2011.

“Georgetown Experts Discuss Tunisia and Egypt Uprisings.” 2011. Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar. 9 February. http://qatar.sfs.georgetown.edu/147379.html Visited 26 January 2012.

Giglio, Mike. 2011. “How Wael Ghonim Sparked Egypt’s Uprising.” Newsweek. 13 February. http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2011/02/13/the-facebook-freedom-fighter.html Visited October 13 2011.

Gladwell, Mike. 2010. “Twitter, Facebook, and social activism.” The New Yorker. 4 October. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2010/10/04/101004fa_fact_gladwell Visited 15 November 2011.

Golan, Guy. 2012. “Tweeting Democracy Across the Arab World.” Al Arabiya News. 6 April. http://english.alarabiya.net/views/2012/04/06/205838.html Viewed 10 April 2012.

Goldstone, Jack A. 1982. “The Comparative and Historical Study of Revolutions.” Annual Review of Sociology8(1): 187-207. doi: 10.1146/annurev.so.08.080182.001155

Goldstone, Jack A. & Tilly, Charles. 2001. “Threat (and Opportunity): Popular Action and State Response in the Dynamics of Contentious Action.” In Silence and Voice in the Study of Contentious Politics, ed. Ron Aminzade, Jack A. Goldstone, Doug McAdam, Elizabeth J. Perry, William H. Sewell, Jr., Sidney Tarrow & Charles Tilly, 14-51. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Grossman, Lev. 2009. “Iran’s Protests: Why Twitter is the Medium of the Movement.” Time Magazine. 17 June. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1905125,00.html Visited March 13 2012.

Hachman, Mark. 2011. “Google, SayNow Launch Tweet-by-Phone for Egypt, World” PC Magazine. 31 January. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2379015,00.asp Visited 10 November 2011.

Hamilton, Anita. 2007. “Why Everyone’s Talking About Twitter.” Time Magazine. 27 March. http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1603637,00.html Visited 13 March 2012.

Hamilton, John Maxwell & Jenner, Eric. 2004. “Redefining Foreign Correspondence, Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism.” SAGE Publications, 5 (3): 301-321.

Hamdy, Naila. 2010. “Arab Citizen Journalism Shaped by New Media Technologies Creates a Challenge to Mainstream Media, Authorities and Media Law.” In Broadcast, internet and TV media in the Arab World and small nations, ed. W. G. Covington, Jr. & J. A. Al-Obaidi, 55-71. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.

Hinduja, Sameer & Patchin, Justin. 2010. “Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Suicide.” Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 206‐221.

Hounshell, Blake. 2011. “A New Leader for Egypt’s Protesters.” Foreign Policy – the Global Magazine of Economics, Politics, and Ideas. 7 February. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/02/07/a_new_leader_for_egypt_s_protesters Visited 15 November 2011.

Howard, Alex. 2011. “A Tunisian on the Role of Social Media in the Revolution in Tunisia.” gov20.govfresh. 30 January. http://gov20.govfresh.com/a-tunisian-on-the-role-of-social-media-in-the-revolution-in-tunisia/ Visited 20 January 2012.

Hussein, Amira A. 2008. “Press freedom in Egypt (Doctoral dissertation, The American University in Cairo).” The Arabic Network for Human Rights Information. June. http://www.anhri.net/en/reports/pressfredom/ Visited 7 December 2011.

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Idle, Nadia & Nunns, Alex. 2011. Tweets from Tahrir. New York: OR Books.

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Jones, Mark A. 2003. “Can Technology Transform? Experimenting with Wired Communities.” In Virtual Publics, ed. Beth E. Kolko, 354-383.

Karon, Tony. 2011. “Stalemate on the Street Poses Risk for Mubarak’s Opponents.” Time Magazine. 8 February. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2046908,00.html Viewed 12 April 2012.

Khamis, S., & Vaughn, K. 2011. “Cyberactivism in the Egyptian Revolution: How Civic Engagement and Citizen Journalism Tilted the Balance.” Arab Media & Society, 13, summer. http://www.arabmediasociety.com/articles/downloads/20110603105609_Khamis.pdf Visited 7 December 2011.

Kubo, Melanie M. 2010. “Visual Storytelling: Is Seeing Believing? – Full Contact Philanthropy.” Idealistics Inc. 7 June. http://idealistics.org/fcp/2010/06/07/visual-storytelling-is-seeing-believing/ Visited 13 November 2011.

“Lara Logan Suffered ‘Brutal’ Sexual Assault In Egypt.” 2011. Huff Post Media. The Huffington Post. 15 February. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/15/lara-logan-suffered-bruta_n_823677.html Visited 13 November 2011.

Losh, Liz. 2011. “Digital Learning and the Arab Spring.” DMLcentral. 23 June. http://dmlcentral.net/blog/liz-losh/digital-learning-and-arab-spring Visited 13 October 2011.

Macgivallary, Alex & Stone, Biz. 2011. “The Tweets Must Flow.” 28 January. http://blog.twitter.com/2011/01/tweets-must-flow.html Viewed 6 April 2012.

Maher, Ahmed & Rashed, Waleed. 2011. Youth inspiring youth. Lecture presented in American University, Washington, D.C. 20 October.

Maney, Kevin. 2006. “Tech Industry Spews Web Companies, Doohickeys So Fast We Can’t Keep Up.” USAToday. 29 August. http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/technology/maney/2006-08-29-web-bubble_x.htm Viewed 20 March 2012.

Meijer, Roel. 2011. “The Egyptian Jama’a Al-Islamiyya as a Social Movement.” In Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa, ed. Joel Beinin & Frederic Vairel, 143-162. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

Middleburg, Don & McClure, Jen. 2011. “How are Media and Journalism Evolving?” Society for New Communications Research. 6 May. http://www.slideshare.net/sncr/how-are-media-journalism-evolving Visited 2 April 2012.

Morozov, Evegeny. 2011. The Net Delusion. New York: PublicAffairs.

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Oliver, Pamela E. & Marwell, Gerald. 1992. “Mobilizing Technologies for Collective Action.” In Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, ed. Aldon Morris & Carol McClurg Mueller, 251-271. Binghamton, New York: Yale University.

Ottaway, Marina, and Amr Hamzawy. 2011. “Protest Movements and Political Change in the Arab World.” Policy Outlook. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 28 January. http://carnegieendowment.org/files/OttawayHamzawy_Outlook_Jan11_protestmovements.pdf Retrieved May 10 2011.

Newman, Abraham & Zysman, John. 2006. “Transforming Politics in the Digital Era.” How Revolutionary was the Digital Revolution: National responses, market transitions, and global technology., ed. John Zysman & Abraham Newman. Palo Alto: Stanford.

Parker, Andrew. 2010. “Vodaphone Ends Sale Talks in Egypt.” Financial Times. 1 June. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/d72e000e-6da7-11df-b5c9-00144feabdc0,Authorised=false.html?_i_location=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ft.com%2Fcms%2Fs%2F0%2Fd72e000e-6da7-11df-b5c9-00144feabdc0.html&_i_referer=#axzz1nVlAgBkr Visited 15 February 2012.

Pollack, Kenneth. 2011. “The Arab Militaries: The Double-Edged Swords.” In The Arab Awakening, ed. Kenneth Pollack, 58-64. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institute.

Posusney, Marsha. 1993. “Irrational Workers: The Moral Economy of Labor Protests in Egypt. “World Politics, 46(1): 83-120.

Salta, Alex. 2011. “OhMyGov and Newsweek Team Up on 2012 Election Data Graphic.” OhMyGov! 20 October. http://ohmygov.com/blogs/general_news/archive/2011/10/20/ohmygov-and-newsweek-look-at-the-social-media-primary.aspx Visited 10 November 2011.

Saleh, Nivien. 2010. Third World Citizens and the Information Technology Revolution. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Schneider, Cathy. 2011. “Violence and State Repression.” Swiss Political Science Review, 17(3): 480-484.

Seksek, Tariq. 2011. “Twitter Usage in the MENA Region.” Interactive Middle East. 8 June. http://interactiveme.com/index.php/2011/06/twitter-usage-in-the-mena-middle-east/ Visited 13 March 2012.

Shivambu, Floyd. 2011.“Revolution in Egypt was not caused by Facebook and Twitter.” Floyd’s Views. 14 February. http://floydn.blogspot.com/2011/02/revolution-in-egypt-was-not-caused-by.html Visited 15 November 2011.

Singerman, Diane. 2007. “The Economic Imperatives of Marriage: Emerging Practices and Identities among Youth in the Middle East.” The Middle East Youth Initiative Working Paper 6 (September): 5-43.

Smith, R. J. 2009. “Media and the Muslim World: Enriching the American Dialogue.” The Paley Center for Media. http://carnegie.org/fileadmin/Media/Publications/Media-and-the-Muslim-World-Paley-Center-Report.pdf Visited 2 April 2012.

Sobieraj, Sarah. 2010. “Reporting Conventions: Journalists, Activists, and the Thorny Struggle for Political Visibility.” Social Problems 57.4: 505-28. JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org.proxyau.wrlc.org/stable/10.1525/sp.2010.57.4.505 Visited 15 November 2011.

“Social Apps ‘Harvest Smartphone Contacts.'” 2012. BBC. 15 February. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-17051910 Visited 15 February 2012.

Streitmatter, Rodger. 2001. Voices of Revolution. New York: Columbia University Press.

Sosale, Sujatha. 2008. Communication, Development and Democracy. Creskill, New Jersey: Hampton Press, Inc.

Sysomos. 2011. “Tweeting from Egypt has increased by 60% in the past week.” 31 January. http://twitter.com/#!/sysomos/statuses/32189152611008512 Visited 28 April 2012.

Tarrow, Sidney. 2011. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Temple-Reston, Dina. 2011. “New Terrorism Adviser Takes a ‘Broad Tent’ Approach.” NPR. 24 January. http://www.npr.org/2011/01/24/133125267/new-terrorism-adviser-takes-a-broad-tent-approach Visited 17 February 2012.

“Tweets from Tahrir: January 25.” 2012. Al Jazeera English. 3 February. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/tweetsfromtahrir/ Visited 9 February 2012.

“Tweets Still Must Flow.” 2012. Twitter Blog. 26 January 2012. http://blog.twitter.com/2011/01/tweets-must-flow.html Visited 6 April 2012.

“Twitter Translation Center Adds Right-to-Left Languages.” 2012. Twitter Blog. 25 January. http://blog.twitter.com/2012/01/twitter-translation-center-adds-right.html Visited 25 January 2012.

Willis, Amy. 2011. “Egypt Protests: Live – Telegraph.” Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph. 12 February. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/egypt/8320161/Egypt-protests-the-resignation-of-Mubarak-as-it-happened-day-18.html Visited 15 November 2011.

Zhou, Yuqiong & Moy, Patricia. 2007. “Parsing Framing Processes: The Interplay Between Online Public Opinion and Media Coverage.” In Journal of Communication, 57.

Interviews in Person/Via Email

Aziz, Mariam. Personal Interview, 20 February 2012, Washington, DC.

El-Adawy, Adel. Personal Interview, 2 March 2012, Washington, DC.

Freelon, Deen. Personal Interview, 16 March 2012, Washington, DC.

Hanna, Loubna. Personal Interview, 27 March 2012, Washington, DC.

Iskandar, Adel. Personal Interview, 31 March 2012, Washington, DC.

Resnik, Bennett. Personal Interview. 27 April 2012, via phone.

Schneider, Cathy. Personal Interview, 6 March 2012, Washington, DC.

Shaker, Alaa. Personal Interview,  1 March 2012, via email.

Articles for Foreign Media Analysis

“18 Days of Protest Culminate in Mubarak’s Ouster.” 2011. CNN. 11 February. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-02-11/world/egypt.protests_1_egyptian-president-hosni-mubarak-announcement-on-state-television-sharm?_s=PM:WORLD Viewed 11 April 2012.

Ahmed, Amir. 2011. “Thousands Protest in Egypt.” CNN. 25 January. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-01-25/world/egypt.protests_1_street-protests-thousands-protest-economic-policies/2?_s=PM:WORLD Viewed 6 April 2012.

Alexander, Anne. 2011. “Internet Role in Egypt’s Protest.” BBC. 9 February. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12400319 Visited 8 April, 2012.

Blumberg, Alex. 2011. “Why Egypt’s Military Cares About Home Appliances.” National Public Radio. 4 February. http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2011/02/10/133501837/why-egypts-military-cares-about-home-appliances Viewed 8 April 2012.

Bradley, Matt. 2011. “Rioters Jolt Egyptian Regime.” The Wall Street Journal. 26 January.  http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704698004576104112320465414.html Viewed 8 April 2012.

Chen, Adrian. 2011. “Why Facebook Should Do More to Help Egypt’s Protests.” Gawker. 5 February. http://gawker.com/5752904/why-facebook-should-do-more-to-help-egypts-protesters Viewed 1 April 2012.

Chick, Kristen. 2011. “Egyptians Flood the Streets, Defying Police and Calling for Regime Change.” The Christian Science Monitor. 28 January. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2011/0128/Egyptians-flood-the-streets-defying-police-and-calling-for-regime-change Viewed 4 April 2012.

Cowie, James. 2011. “Egypt Leaves the Internet.” Renesys Blog. 27 January. http://www.renesys.com/blog/2011/01/egypt-leaves-the-internet.shtml Viewed 6 April 2012.

DeYong, Karen. 2011. “Obama Administration Aligns Itself with Protests in Egypt with Call for ‘Orderly Transition.'” The Washington Post. 31 January. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/01/30/AR2011013004401.html Viewed 6 April 2012.

“Egypt Protests: Anti-Mubarak Demonstrators Arrested.” 2011. BBC. 26 January. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12289475 Viewed 11 April 2012.

“Egypt Revoultion 2011.” 2012. Global Voices. 17 April. http://globalvoicesonline.org/specialcoverage/2011-special-coverage/egypt-protests-2011/ Viewed 18 April 2012.

“Egypt Rises Up.” 2011. The Economist. 3 February. http://www.economist.com/node/18070190 Viewed 4 April 2012.

Eltahawy, Mona. 2011. “Will Egypt’s Protests Go the Way of Tunisia’s Revolution?” The Washington Post. 26 January. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/01/25/AR2011012507200.html Visited 1 April 2012.

Fisk, Robert. 2011. “U.S. Envoy’s Business Link to Egypt.” The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-envoys-business-link-to-egypt-2206329.html Viewed 12 April 2012.

Karon, Tony. “Crisis in Cairo: The Latest from Egypt in Turmoil.” Time Magazine. 28 January. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2044923,00.html Viewed 1 April 2012.

Kirkpatrick, David. 2011. “Egypt Erupts in Jubilation as Mubarak Steps Down.” The New York Times. 11 February. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/12/world/middleeast/12egypt.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all Viewed 6 April 2012.

Lavruski, Vadim. 2011. “How Users in Egypt are Bypassing Twitter & Facebook Blocks.” Mashable. 27 January. http://mashable.com/2011/01/27/bypass-twitter-facebook-block-egypt/ Viewed 2 April 2012.

“Live Blog Feb 4 – Egypt Protests.” 2011. Al Jazeera English. 4 February. http://blogs.aljazeera.net/middle-east/2011/02/03/live-blog-feb-4-egypt-protests Viewed 10 April 2012.

“Live Blog Feb 5 – Egypt Protests.” 2011. Al Jazeera English. 5 February. http://blogs.aljazeera.net/middle-east/2011/02/04/live-blog-feb-5-egypt-protests Viewed 10 April 2012.

Martin, Mark. 2011. “Women Play Vital Role in Egypt’s Uprising.” National Public Radio. 4 February. http://www.npr.org/2011/02/04/133497422/Women-Play-Vital-Role-In-Egypts-Uprising Viewed 8 April 2012.

Michael, Maggie. 2011. “Spiraling Protests Bring Egypt Crackdown Threat.” UT San Diego. 10 February.  http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2011/feb/10/spiraling-protests-bring-egypt-crackdown-threat/ Viewed 8 April 2012.

Milan, Mark. 2011. “Reports Say Egypt Web Shutdown is Coordinated, Extensive.” CNN. 28 January. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-01-28/tech/egypt.internet.shutdown_1_social-media-egypt-web-instant-messaging?_s=PM:TECH Viewed 8 April 2012.

Mooney, Mark. 2011. “Egypt: ABC News Reporter Brian Hartman Threatened with Beheading.” ABC News. 3 February. http://abcnews.go.com/International/abc-reporter-threatened-beheading-covering-egypt-uprising/story?id=12832774#.T5yY98RYscu Viewed 12 April 2012.

Murphy, Dan. 2011. “Egypt Shuts Down Internet, Rounds Up Opposition Leaders As Protests Start.” The Christian Science Monitor. 28 January. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Backchannels/2011/0128/Egypt-shuts-down-Internet-rounds-up-opposition-leaders-as-protests-start Viewed 1 April 2012.

Murphy, Dan. 2011. “Liveblogging the Egyptian Uprising.” The Christian Science Monitor. 28 January. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Backchannels/2011/0128/Live-blogging-the-Egyptian-uprising Viewed 1 April 2011.

Nelson, Paul. 2011. “Egypt: The Wait.” The Boston Globe. 11 February. http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2011/02/egypt_the_wait.html Viewed 12 April 2012.

O’Dell, Jolie. 2011. “How Egyptians Used Twitter During the January Crisis.” Mashable. 1 February. http://mashable.com/2011/02/01/egypt-twitter-infographic/ Viewed 1 April 2012.

Olivarez-Giles, Nathan. 2011. “Egypt May Have Turned Off the Internet One Phone Call at a Time.” The Los Angeles Times. 29 January. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/technology/2011/01/egypts-internet-blackout-unprecedented.html Viewed 4 April 2012.

Parks, Cara. 2011. “What’s Going On in Egypt?” Huffington Post. 28 January. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/28/whats-going-on-in-egypt_n_815734.html Viewed 8 April 2012.

Ravid, Barak. 2011. “Israel Urges World to Curb Criticism of Egypt’s Mubarak.” Haaretz. 31 January. http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/israel-urges-world-to-curb-criticism-of-egypt-s-mubarak-1.340238 Viewed 12 April 2012.

Richtel, Matt. 2011. “Egypt Cuts Off Most Internet and Cell Service.” The New York Times. 28 January. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/29/technology/internet/29cutoff.html?_r=1 Viewed 6 April 2012.

Roper, Christopher. 2011. “Twitter will ‘Save Africa.'” Mail & Guardian. 4 February. http://mg.co.za/article/2011-02-04-twitter-will-save-africa/ Viewed 1 April 2012.

Sanders, Edmund. 2011. “Egypt’s Military Moves to Take Control of Parts of Cairo.” The Los Angeles Times. 31 January. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/jan/31/world/la-fg-egypt-unrest-20110131 Viewed 8 April 2012.

Taylor, Alan. 2011. “Egypt: A New Turning Point for the Revolution?” The Atlantic. 10 February. http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/02/egypt-a-new-turning-point-for-the-revolution/100007/ Viewed 6 April 2012.

“The Upheaval in Egypt: An End or a Beginning?” 2011. The Economist. 3 February. http://www.economist.com/node/18063746 Viewed 8 April 2012.

Ungerleider, Neal. 2011. “Massive Egyptian Protests Powered by YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, Twitpics.” FastCompany. 25 January. http://www.fastcompany.com/1720692/egypt-protests-mubarak-twitter-youtube-facebook-twitpic Viewed 8 April 2012.

Zirulnik, Ariel. 2011. “Egypt’s Protests, Told by #Jan25.” The Christian Science Monitor. 25 January. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Global-News/2011/0125/Egypt-s-protests-told-by-Jan25 Viewed by 4 April 2012.

Zizek, Slavoc. 2011. “For Egypt, This is the Miracle of Tahrir Square.” The Guardian. 10 February. http://www.guardian.co.uk/global/2011/feb/10/egypt-miracle-tahrir-square Viewed 9 April 2012.

Blogs

El Dahshan, Mohamed. 2011. “Revolution in Egypt, 25 January 2011, Day 1.” The Traveller Within. 26 January. http://www.travellerwithin.com/2011/01/revolution-in-egypt-25-january-2011-day.html Visited 13 October 2011.

“January 25.” 2011. Egyptocracy. January/February. http://egyptocracy.wordpress.com/ Visited 13 October 2011.

Nell, Wally. 2011. Wally Nell: “Foreigners Arrested in Maadi. Also: Being Shot.” Jan 25 Voices. 9 February. http://jan25voices.net/wally-nell-foreigners-arrested-in-maadi-also-being-shot/ Visited 13 October 2011.

Facebook

“Egypt’s Protests 25-Jan-2011.” 2011. Facebook. January/February. https://www.facebook.com/pages/Egypts-Protests-25-Jan-2011/122198837852240 Visited 13 October 2011.

Sreenivasan, Sree. “2011. EGYPT: Tracking Coverage, Sources, etc – Please Add Items.” Facebook. 27 January. https://www.facebook.com/notes/sreetips/egypt-tracking-coverage-sources-etc-please-add-items/496998473691 Visited 13 October 2011.

Wolman, Dave. 2008. “Cairo Activists Use Facebook to Rattle Regime.” Wired.com. 20 October. http://www.wired.com/techbiz/startups/magazine/16-11/ff_facebookegypt?currentPage=all Visited 25 September 2011.

Twitter

(See Twitter Roll)

YouTube

“Egyptocracy’s YouTube Channel.” 2011. YouTube. January/February. http://www.youtube.com/user/egyptocracy Visited 13 October 2011.

Elliott, Amy-Mae. 2011. “YouTube Facts: 10 Things You May Not Have Known.” Mashable. 19 February. http://mashable.com/2011/02/19/youtube-facts/ Visited 13 November 2011.

“Lamsh’s Channel.” 2011. YouTube. January/February. http://www.youtube.com/user/lamsh Visited 13 October 2011.

“MrEthzxz’s Channel.” 2011. YouTube. January/February. http://www.youtube.com/user/MrEthzxz Visited 13 October 2011.

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